Any sexually active person is at risk for HPV infection given the high prevalence of this infection. Traditionally, sexually transmitted infections have a disproportionate burden among adolescents and young adults.1 However, HPV is unique in that prevalence in men is high and widespread among all age groups. In addition, most of these HPV infections are silent, asymptomatic, and do not cause disease until later years with persistent infection that presents as cancer.
Higher HPV prevalence among men suggests that there is a greater opportunity for increased vaccine effectiveness as a society, as the vaccine coverage increases with the benefit of herd immunity. HPV vaccination may have a profound impact on the prevention of HPV-attributable cancers in both men and women, as one serves as a silent host for the other in addition to being a direct cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Furthermore, widespread HPV infection in all age groups of men questions the rationale regarding the current vaccination age cutoff, which warrants further evaluation. Only by significantly increasing vaccination coverage will progress be made in eradicating most HPV-associated cancers in the United States.
- Satterwhite CL, Torrone E, Meites E, et al. Sexually transmitted infections among US women and men: prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008. Sex Transm Dis 2013; 4:187-93.
- Clifford G, Smith JS, Plummer M, et al. Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2003; 88:63-73.
- Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, et al. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29:4294-301.
- Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual report to the Nation on the Status of cancer, 1975–2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers and hpv vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013; 105:175-201.
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011; 60:1705-8.
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA News Release. https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm510251.htm. Retrieved on 8 Aug. 2016.
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA News Release. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html; Retrieved on 5 Nov 2016.
- Han JJ, Beltran TH, Song JW, et al. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates Among US Adult Men: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. JAMA Oncol 2017; Jan 19. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.6192 (Epub ahead of print).
- Saraiya M, Unger ER, Thompson TD, et. al. US Assessment of HPV Types in Cancers: Implications for Current and 9-Valent HPV Vaccines. J Natl Cancer Inst 2015; 107: djv086. Published online 2015 April 29. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv086. PMCID: PMC4838063
- Lacey CJ, Lowndes CM, Shah KV. Burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related conditions: HPV-6/11 disease. Vaccine 2006; 24:S35-S41.
- Wiatrak BJ, Wiatrak DW, Broker TR, et al. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population. Laryngoscope 2004; 114(S104):1-23.
- Gillison ML, Broutian T, Pickard RK, et al. Prevalence of oral HPV infection in the United States, 2009-2010. JAMA 2012; 307:693-703.
- Hebnes JB, Munk C, Nøhr B, et al. Human papillomavirus infection among 2460 men in Denmark: Prevalence in relation to age using 2 human papillomavirus DNA testing methods. Sex Transm Dis 2015; 42:463-7.
- Saraiya M, Unger ER, Thompson TD, et al. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: Implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines. J Natl Cancer Inst 2015; 107:djv086.
- Giuliano AR, Lazcano-Ponce E, Villa LL, et al. The human papillomavirus infection in men study: human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17:2036-43.
- Giuliano AR, Lee JH, Fulp W, et al. Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): A cohort study. Lancet 2011; 377:932-40.
- Markowitz LE, Sternberg M, Dunne EF. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18 in the United States: national health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2004. J Infect Dis 2009; 200:1059–67.
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