Among the AUA annual meeting take-home messages in basic science is that the immune co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4 is highly expressed in the luminal subtype of bladder urothelial carcinoma and is associated with poor survival. The take-home messages in basic science were presented by Rosalyn M. Adam, PhD, of Harvard Medical School, Boston.
The immune co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4 is highly expressed in the luminal subtype of bladder urothelial carcinoma and is associated with poor survival. B7-H4 may be a promising target for immunotherapy, particularly in patients who do not respond to PD-L1 therapy.
Patient-derived xenografts from primary and metastatic prostate cancer lesions are being used to interrogate biology underlying development of resistance and to suggest alternative therapeutic approaches.
An ultra-fast system combining xenografts derived from primary tumors and metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma combined with multiregional genomic sequencing provided a readout of drug resistance based on phenotype and holds promise for guiding personalized drug selection.
Stable patient-derived xenograft models and cell lines of upper tract urothelial carcinoma have been developed and offer utility for drug screening as a personalized medicine approach.
Bladder cancer tumors with a basal phenotype in patients who have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy are high risk and aggressive, but they respond favorably to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, leading to increased overall survival.
- Downregulated miRNA clusters were characterized in bladder biopsy tissue obtained from patients with bladder outlet obstruction and could provide insights into the mechanism for loss of function.
- MicroRNA-132 induced bladder hypertrophy and overactivity in a rodent model. Its effects on muscle contractility were consistent with its ability to downregulate acetylcholinesterase and upregulate molecules associated with overactivity.
- Estrogen receptor gene networks may provide novel biomarkers for studying BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms.
- Periprostatic fat in obese patients may contribute to prostate tissue remodeling.
- Extracellular vesicles derived from amniotic fluid stem cells attenuated elevated VEGF signaling in a mouse model of Alport syndrome and the pathologic sequelae of the disease.
- Patients with calcium stones and Randall’s plaque excrete distinct populations of miRNAs within urinary extracellular vesicles. These miRNAs contribute to stone pathogenesis and may serve as valuable biomarkers.
- A biofabricated bone marrow-derived cell patch restored structure and function to radiation-injured bladders in a rat model.
- Optogenetics offers a strategy to evoke control of discrete populations of bladder sensory fibers that could lead to better understanding of their role in bladder function and disease.
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