Guideline-directed care often leads to better outcomes, but that’s not the case with the AUA’s antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines for diabetic patients undergoing primary penile prosthesis implantation. Authors of an ongoing study have found that adhering to the antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines results in a five-fold increased infection risk among diabetic penile prothesis patients, greatly increasing their risk for explantation.
Study author Maxwell Towe, BS, presented the data at the AUA annual meeting in Chicago. He said the AUA recommends antibiotic prophylaxis prior to penile prosthesis implantation with an aminoglycoside and either a first- or second-generation cephalosporin or vancomycin. But the AUA states on its website that there are no randomized trials assessing the efficacy of the current recommendation.
An infection requiring device explantation is the most devastating complication post penile prosthesis implantation, the authors wrote.
“The fact that these guidelines resulted in worse outcomes for these patients is something that really needs to be taken seriously,” according to Towe, clinical research fellow at the University of California, Irvine, working with Faysal A. Yafi, MD, and colleagues.
The authors studied 603 diabetic patients undergoing primary penile prosthesis implantation between April 2003 and May 2018 at 17 high-volume institutions.
In an average 7-month follow-up, the authors found 3.8%, or 23 of the patients, had a postoperative infection, 4.8% (29 patients) had their device explanted, and 5.5% (33 patients) required revision. Clinicians followed AUA prophylaxis guidelines in 36.5%, or 282 patients, with 220 receiving gentamicin and vancomycin and 62 patients receiving gentamicin and a cephalosporin. The remaining 321 patients, representing more than half of those studied, received prophylaxis that differed from the AUA’s recommendations.
Patients in the AUA guidelines group had significantly higher rates of infection and explantation but similar revision rates. Infections occurred in 6% of patients who received AUA-recommended antibiotic prophylaxis versus 1.9% in the non-AUA group. The rate of explantations was 8.2% in the AUA group compared to 1.9% in the non-AUA group.