Studies finding that fatty acid binding protein 5 is preferentially overexpressed in high-risk prostate cancer and that a ketogenic diet significantly inhibited tumor growth in a mouse model of clear cell RCC were among other AUA 2018 take-home messages in basic science (malignant). The take-homes were presented by Heinric Williams, MD, MS, of Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA.
- In a cohort of patients with hematuria, a urinary molecular assay (UroSEEK) had 83% sensitivity for bladder cancer detection, 95% sensitivity, and 93% specificity when it was combined with cytology, and 100% sensitivity for identifying patients with atypical cytology who went on to develop cancer.
- Fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) is preferentially overexpressed in high-risk prostate cancer. Both FABP5 overexpression and the ratio of FABP5/fatty acid synthase is higher in overweight and obese men compared with normal weight men, and FABP5 overexpression is highest in obese African-Americans.
- A ketogenic diet significantly inhibited tumor growth in a mouse model of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
- A study using drug-resistant cell lines found intraclass cross-resistance to enzalutamide (XTANDI) and abiraterone (ZYTIGA) and to docetaxel (Taxotere) and cabazitaxel (JEVTANA), but no inter-class resistance between the anti-androgens and taxanes.
- Most muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) tissue demonstrates a mixed pattern of basal and luminal subtypes. The presence of these subtypes has no correlation with clinical parameters, including metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, or lymph node status.
- Findings from genomic characterization and analysis of outcomes of patients who underwent surgical resection for clear cell papillary RCC indicate it is an indolent tumor.
- Gemcitabine/cisplatin therapy was the most efficacious treatment compared with paclitaxel/carboplatin and sunitinib (Sutent) in a mouse model of renal medullary carcinoma.
- Prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts from African-American men exhibit a higher proliferative response to mitogens compared with fibroblasts from Caucasians and increase tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cell lines through enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators.
- CD4+T cells infiltrate more into prostate tumors than into normal tissue. Co-culturing of prostate cancer cell lines with CD4+T cells induces docetaxel resistance that is mediated by secretion of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and can be reversed by treatment with a CCL5 neutralizing antibody.