"Pediatric urinary tract infection is a significant source of antibiotic exposure," said co-author Hillary Copp, MD, MS, assistant professor of urology at the University of California, San Francisco. "Often, empiric antibiotic therapy is required for UTIs before culture results are returned."
About 3.5% of all children in the United States are subject to urinary tract infections, Dr. Copp reminded attendees at the 2010 American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Urology annual meeting in San Francisco. Characterization of antibiotic prescribing patterns for UTIs has been performed in the adult population, demonstrating an increase in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, she added. But researchers at UCSF were unable to find similar surveys of pediatric populations.
A variety of factors influence prescribing decisions, Dr. Copp noted, including patient age, known allergies, costs, compliance, and resistance patterns. The current AAP Practice Parameter on UTI, issued in 1999, recommends various oral antibiotics for the empiric treatment of UTI, including amoxicillin (Amoxil, Moxatag, Trimox), sulfonamides, and cephalosporins. Recommended parenteral agents include ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefotaxime (Claforan), ceftazidime (Fortaz, Tazicef), cefazolin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ticarcillin (Ticar), and ampicillin.
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